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ویژگی های فیزیکی و شیمیایی انواع سوخت ها و حامل های

FuelDensityHigher Heating Value (HHV)
(Gross Calorific Value - GCV)
Lower Heating Value (LHV)
(Net Calorific Value - NCV)
@0°C/32°F, 1 bar
Gaseous fuels [kg/m3] [g/ft3] [kWh/kg] [MJ/kg] [Btu/lb] [MJ/m3] [Btu/ft3] [kWh/kg] [MJ/kg] [Btu/lb] [MJ/m3] [Btu/ft3]
Acetylene 1.097 31.1 13.9 49.9 21453 54.7 1468          
Ammonia       22.5 9690              
Hydrogen 0.090 2.55 39.4 141.7 60920 12.7 341 33.3 120.0 51591 10.8 290
Methane 0.716 20.3 15.4 55.5 23874 39.8 1069 13.9 50.0 21496 35.8 964
Natural gas (US market)* 0.777 22.0 14.5 52.2 22446 40.6 1090 13.1 47.1 20262 36.6 983
Town gas           18.0 483          
  @15°C/60°F                    
Liquid fuels [kg/l] [kg/gal] [kWh/kg] [MJ/kg] [Btu/lb] [MJ/l] [Btu/gal] [kWh/kg] [MJ/kg] [Btu/lb] [MJ/l] [Btu/gal]
Acetone 0.787 2.979 8.83 31.8 13671 25.0 89792 8.22 29.6 12726 23.3 83580
Butane 0.601 3.065 13.64 49.1 21109 29.5 105875 12.58 45.3 19475 27.2 97681
Butanol 0.810   10.36 37.3 16036 30.2 108359 9.56 34.4 14789 27.9 99934
Diesel fuel* 0.846 3.202 12.67 45.6 19604 38.6 138412 11.83 42.6 18315 36.0 129306
Dimethyl ether (DME) 0.665 2.518 8.81 31.7 13629 21.1 75655 8.03 28.9 12425 19.2 68973
Ethane 0.572 2.165 14.42 51.9 22313 29.7 106513 13.28 47.8 20550 27.3 98098
Ethanol (100%) 0.789 2.987 8.25 29.7 12769 23.4 84076 7.42 26.7 11479 21.1 75583
Diethyl ether (ether) 0.716 2.710 11.94 43.0 18487 30.8 110464          
Gasoline (petrol)* 0.737 2.790 12.89 46.4 19948 34.2 122694 12.06 43.4 18659 32.0 114761
Gas oil (heating oil)* 0.84 3.180 11.95 43.0 18495 36.1 129654 11.89 42.8 18401 36.0 128991
Glycerin 1.263 4.781 5.28 19.0 8169 24.0 86098          
Heavy fuel oil* 0.98 3.710 11.61 41.8 17971 41.0 146974 10.83 39.0 16767 38.2 137129
Kerosene* 0.821 3.108 12.83 46.2 19862 37.9 126663 11.94 43.0 18487 35.3 126663
Light fuel oil* 0.96 3.634 12.22 44.0 18917 42.2 151552 11.28 40.6 17455 39.0 139841
LNG* 0.428 1.621 15.33 55.2 23732 23.6 84810 13.50 48.6 20894 20.8 74670
LPG* 0.537 2.033 13.69 49.3 21195 26.5 94986 12.64 45.5 19561 24.4 87664
Marine gas oil* 0.855 3.237 12.75 45.9 19733 39.2 140804 11.89 42.8 18401 36.6 131295
Methanol 0.791 2.994 6.39 23.0 9888 18.2 65274 5.54 19.9 8568 15.8 56562
Methyl ester (biodiesel) 0.888 3.361 11.17 40.2 17283 35.7 128062 10.42 37.5 16122 33.3 119460
MTBE 0.743 2.811 10.56 38.0 16337 28.2 101244 9.75 35.1 15090 26.1 93517
Oils vegetable (biodiesel)* 0.92 3.483 11.25 40.5 17412 37.3 133684 10.50 37.8 16251 34.8 124772
Paraffin (wax)* 0.90 3.407 12.78 46.0 19776 41.4 148538 11.53 41.5 17842 37.4 134007
Pentane 0.63 2.385 13.50 48.6 20894 30.6 109854 12.60 45.4 19497 28.6 102507
Petroleum naphtha* 0.725 2.745 13.36 48.1 20679 34.9 125145 12.47 44.9 19303 32.6 116819
Propane 0.498 1.885 13.99 50.4 21647 25.1 89963 12.88 46.4 19927 23.1 82816
Residual oil* 0.991 3.752       41.8 150072 10.97 39.5 16982 39.2 140470
Tar*     10.00 36.0 15477              
Turpentine 0.865 3.274 12.22 44.0 18917 38.1 136555          
Solid fuels*     [kWh/kg] [MJ/kg] [Btu/lb]     [kWh/kg] [MJ/kg] [Btu/lb]    
Anthracite coal     9.06 32.6 14015              
Bituminous coal     8.39 30.2 12984     8.06 29.0 12468    
Carbon     9.11 32.8 14101              
Charcoal     8.22 29.6 12726     7.89 28.4 12210    
Coke     7.22 26.0 11178              
Lignite (brown coal)     3.89 14.0 6019              
Peat     4.72 17.0 7309              
Petroleum coke     8.69 31.3 13457     8.19 29.5 12683    
Semi anthracite     8.19 29.5 12683              
Sub-Bituminous coal     6.78 24.4 10490              
Sulfur (s)     2.56 9.2 3955     2.55 9.2 3939    
Wood (dry) 0.701   4.50 16.2 6965     4.28 15.4 6621    

* Fuels which consist of a mixture of several different compounds may vary in quality between seasons and markets. The given values are for fuels with the given density. The variation in quality may give heating values within a range 5 -10% higher and lower than the given value. Also the solid fuels will have a similar quality variation for the different classes of fuel.